Do penalties equal punishment?
Western nations have slapped Russia with a wide range of sanctions following its invasion of Ukraine, including oil and gold embargoes, export bans on critical technologies, and oligarch asset freezes. And fresh sanctions may be on their way as the EU responds to Putin's shock mobilisation of 300,000 troops, Russia's first wartime mobilisation since World War II.
But is the barrage of tough penalties actually having the desired effect? Read on to find out whether sanctions are hitting the Russian war machine where it hurts or failing as miserably as Putin and even some Western commentators have insisted. All dollar amounts in US dollars, unless otherwise stated.