Painted by the French impressionist Pierre-Auguste Renoir in 1876, Bal du moulin de la Galette depicts an afternoon dance at a windmill in Montmartre, Paris. There are two versions of the same artwork, which are almost identical except in size. Between 1879 and 1894, the larger version was owned by the artist Gustave Caillebotte and was seized by the state in lieu of death duties when he died. It's now displayed in the Musée d'Orsay, but the fate of the smaller, more expensive version remains unclear.
In 1990, the painting was bought by the Japanese businessman Ryoei Saito for $78.1 million, the equivalent of $169.5 million (£128m) today. Saito sparked international outrage when it was suggested that he planned to have the artwork cremated with him when he died, alongside a Van Gogh masterpiece that appears later in our list.
Thankfully, this never happened. Saito, who passed away in 1996, was reportedly forced to sell both paintings after running into financial difficulty. It's thought Bal du moulin de la Galette was purchased by a private Swiss collector, although the precise location of the world's 20th most expensive painting remains a mystery.